consumer. The statistics of 20 years collection shows that 50,000 t of end-of-life apparel was . In this case, textile recycling would mean collecting and processing of textile waste both from post-industry as well as post-consumer to convert it back into usable textile materials. Use of these yarns can drastically … "Style That's Sustainable: A New Fast-Fashion Formula." The textile industry has evolved into a nearly $1 trillion industry globally, comprising clothing, as well as furniture and mattress material, linens, draperies, cleaning materials, leisure equipment, and many other items.. Textile recycling is the process by which old clothing and other textiles are recovered for reuse or material recovery. Rick LeBlanc wrote about sustainability and supply chain topics for The Balance Small Business. Lumpensammler versorgten die Papiermühlen mit textilen Rohstoffen. Clothing recycling is part of textile recycling. Mud Jeans (watch My Green Closet’s video on textile recycling for a cool behind the scenes look at Mud’s process) Blue Jeans Go Green (The program used by brands like Madewell, JCrew and Rag & Bone) Bedsheets and towels. The mechanical “garment to garment” recycling process shredders the material, recovers the fibers, spins yarn and knits new pieces of textile – the complete production line finds a place in a mobile 40-foot container. He is also a graduate in apparel production. 4.2.The European Textile Recycling Sector 13 5 Lines of action 16 5.1.Legal and Policies Area 18 5.2.Waste Management 21 5.3.Research trends and technologies 27 5.4.Communication 29 5.5.Education 31 6 Final consideration 33 7 Glossary 34 8 Bibliography 35. Accessed Dec. 29, 2020. In an effort to better understand the textile recycling process we have compiled this quick overview. The donation of old garments is supported by non-profit as well as many corporate programs, including those of Nike and Patagonia. He has been covering the pallet and packaging industries for 25 years. Textile wastes also arise during the process of yarn and fabric manufacture, garment making, etc. Recycling Fabric Waste—The Challenge Industry. Textile recycling is the process of recovering fiber, yarn or fabric and reprocessing the textile material into useful products. Ein weiterer Beleg für die gelebte Verantwortung bei RE TEXTIL ist die Art und Weise unseres wirtschaftlichen Handelns. -rezyklierung versteht man die Sammlung (siehe auch Altkleidersammlung), Sortierung, Aufbereitung und Vermarktung von Alt-Textilien. The end result of this processing can vary, from the production of energy and chemicals to new articles of clothing. Get how to guides to resolve issues in apparel production. His area of interest includes Quality Assurance and technology implementations in Apparel Production. … 4. The major portion of fibres goes to the textile industry whose main output streams are apparel and home textiles. Contact. Watch Queue Queue. A new textile economy: Redesigning the future's fashion. Textile recycling refers to the process by which old clothing and other textiles are recovered for reuse or material recovery. "The European Market Potential for Recycled Fashion." In the landfill, they may release toxic substances into groundwater and surrounding soil.. Exporting Old Clothes- Is It a Good Idea? It is the basis for the textile recycling industry. In this process, the materials are sorted, shredded, and separated into fibers. Accessed Dec. 29, 2020. For entrepreneurs, it provides a business opportunity. Accessed Dec. 29, 2020. These fibres … The following articles will describe more on the various textile recycling processes and how it is going to affect the future of textile manufacturing. The aim of this article is to provide such an examination and to guide process developers by scaling up results from recent laboratory work to a small-scale industrial facility. All Rights Reserved. At the same time, watch for trends such as slow fashion to draw continued attention to the interplay of clothing and sustainability. United Nations. The most common way to recycle textiles is the mechanical way, which includes mostly textiles made totally or partially out of cotton. A web resource for learning apparel manufacturing. The reclaimed fibres can then be used as new raw materials in existing textile manufacturing processes. Materials are sorted and recycled differently depending on if they are post- or pre-consumer. These are subsequently melted and used to create new fibers for use in new polyester fabrics. Approximately 35% of donated clothes are turned into industrial rags. Das sorgt für eine zusätzliche Verbesserung der Ökobilanz, was auch unsere Kunden zu schätzen wissen. ‘Many textile recycling processes are only suitable for products containing homogeneous fibres,’ says Pirjo Heikkilä, senior scientist at VTT. In the United States, this group is represented by SMART, the Association of Wiping Materials, Used Clothing and Fiber Industries. 1863 gab es in Deutschland zwanzig selbstständige Reißwollfabriken. The first step in any textile recycling process is collection. Color sorting results in a fabric that does not need to be re-dyed. The color sorting means no re-dying is required, saving energy and avoiding pollutants. Alkaline hydrolysis has been suggested as a useful textile recycling process, but its sustainability credentials have not been fully examined via life cycle assessment. Then the yarn is re-spun and ready for subsequent use in weaving or knitting. The separation of blended postconsumer fabrics contains chemical, biological and physical lines. The salvage of refurbished and used clothing and used footwear is one of the most widely recognized forms of textile recycling Clothing items that are unfit to be resold … In addition, … Accessed Dec. 29, 2020. Post-consumer textiles are those donated by individuals (i.e., secondhand clothing). For natural textiles: In the case of polyester-based textiles, garments are shredded and then granulated for processing into polyester chips. Increased textile reuse and recycling could potentially reduce the production of virgin textile fibres and, in the case of reuse, also avoid engineering processes further downstream in the textile product life cycle, and thus reduce environmental impact. ‘However, textiles are often a mix of fibres and many products comprise different layers. This video is unavailable. Once in landfills, natural fibers can take a few weeks to a few years to decompose. They may release methane and CO2 gas into the atmosphere. Further, at the beginning of the 1990s, disposal costs were €5/t for landfilling, but nowad ays it is higher than €170/t for incineration [2]. Accessed Dec. 29, 2020. Cradle to cradle approach in the fashion industry, Ellen MacArthur Foundation. Enjoy reading our free contents. McKinsey & Company. Other contacts. Germany ☎ 0049-(0)7376-96211-0 0049-(0)7376-96211-9 info@striebel-textil.de. The importance of recycling textiles is increasingly being recognized. "Protectionist Ban on Imported Used Clothing." For textiles to be recycled, there are fundamental differences between natural and synthetic fibers. In textile manufacturing oriented countries, there needs to be an even clearer regulation that requires textile companies to establish data on the collection of their waste. Recycled Textile Fibres and Textile Recycling An overview of the Market and its possibilities for Public Procurers in Switzerland Commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) December 2017 . Recycling is the process of collecting and processing materials that would otherwise be thrown away as trash and turning them into new products. From Global textile associate: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications, Grasso, M. M. (1996). Recycling and reusing of textile waste both in post-industry as well as post-consumer has been around for more than a decade now and with the increasing demand of sustainability in present times recycling can play a very important role. Contact. Der gewerbliche Lumpenhandel breitete sich rasch aus. Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures, The Process of Recovering and Recycling Old Clothing. Textile recycling offers the following environmental benefits: Textiles for recycling are generated from two primary sources. In 2015, the Nordic Council of Ministers launched an action plan for sustainable fashion and textiles; Well Dressed in a Clean Environment. CBI Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries. They are called as post industrial wastes. This could prevent these items from ending up in unauthorized warehouses. Next, a process called carding, which consists of aligning and spinning the materials, is implemented; afterwards, they are spun with another type of material, most commonly polyester. "Textiles: Material-Specific Data." It involves recovering old clothing and shoes for sorting and processing. Textiles are then pulled into fibers or shredded, sometimes introducing other fibers into the yarn. Defining the Textile Recycling Process Textile recycling is the process by which old clothing, textiles and materials are recovered and re-used as part of an attempt to engage in material recovery. 3. minimization of the use of water and chemicals and recycling them. Grand View Research. Striebel Textil GmbH In der Au 19 88515 Langenenslingen. Certainly, it is a double-edged challenge. This innovative enzymatic waste recycling technology is fully in line with European objectives of creating a circular economy and strengthening environmental protection. Accessed Dec. 29, 2020. Post-consumer, including garments, vehicle upholstery, household items and others.2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Strategic Agenda (SA) is a practical document to translate the ENTeR … Consumers must be made aware th at nearly . In the European Union, about 50% of collected textiles are recycled and about 50% are reused. A patent application published in 2017 describes a recycling process where textiles containing flame resistant synthetic fibres like aramid and enzymatic hydrolysable fibres like viscose are involved. Recycling of textile material. Weitere Verwertungsmöglichkeiten sind Dämmmaterialien i… colourant: a substance that is applied to impart colour to a material or surface, such as a dye or pigment. 2. elimination or minimization of the use of toxic chemicals in production and packing. What is Textile Recycling? Depending on the end use of the yarn, other fibers may be incorporated. As society becomes more familiar with the hazards associated with sending old textiles to the landfill, and as new recycling technologies develop, it can be anticipated that the textile recycling industry will continue to grow. Carbios’ process enables low-value waste to be recovered and to have a new life in more challenging applications – in short, it facilitates infinite recycling of PET-based plastics and textiles. Sustainability of textile processing can be improved by several ways: 1. substitution of unsustainable textile materials and chemicals by greener organic and biodegradable materials. The basis for the growing textile recycling industry is, of course, the textile industry itself. Material recycling of textile waste back into new textile products, is environmentally advantageous compared to incineration or landfill, but is currently limited in extent. Their process of textile recycling consists of shredding the fabric to extract out the fibres which are then mixed with a suitable percentage of virgin fibres so that the yarns made are of the much finer count. "A Peek Inside a Landfill." Damit optimieren wir indirekt den öffentli… The yarns made is most suitable for knitting but for woven fabric, these yarns can only be used in the weft as the tensile strength is not enough to be used for warp. Textile waste products are gathered from different sources and are then sorted and processed depending on their condition, composition, and resale value. [getWidget results="6" label="recent" type="list"], [getWidget results="6" label="apparel%20news" type="list"]. Wir kaufen Textilien immer zu fairen und vertraglich festgelegten Preisen. We continually re-invest in new technologies to ensure that our recycling banks are safe, vandal-proof and efficient. 2 Imprint Commissioned by: Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), Economics and Innovation Division, Green Public Procurement Service, CH-3003 Bern The FOEN is an agency of the … Additionally, synthetic textiles are designed not to decompose. Die Betreiber dieses Portals haben es uns zum Lebensziel gemacht, Varianten verschiedenster Art ausführlichst zu analysieren, dass Interessierte problemlos den Textil recycling gönnen können, den Sie haben wollen. Textil recycling - Der Vergleichssieger . Some are compressed for textile filling such as in mattresses. Ergebnis waren meist billige Stoffe. The FairWertung standards apply and are observed across the entire recycling process - from collection to sorting and preparation, up to the marketing of the second hand goods. Accessed Dec. 29, 2020. Watch Queue Queue Get all latest content delivered straight to your inbox. These sources include:1. Interest in garment recycling is rapidly on the rise due to environmental awareness and landfill pressure. Call your local homeless or animal shelter to see if they’re accepting donations . Jeder einzelne von unserer Redaktion begrüßt Sie zuhause auf unserer Webpräsenz. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. All … We not only process the raw materials, we also turn them into new final products – one of RE TEXTIL Deutschland’s particular strengths. How to find us. This process has a positive effect on landfill within the UK, with WARDRobe processing in excess of 200 tonnes of textiles every month. An estimated 100 billion garments are produced annually, worldwide. According to U.S. EPA, around 17 million tons of textile municipal solid waste (MSW) was generated in 2018, about 5.8% of total MSW generation. Close the Loop. The Blend Re:wind separation process makes it possible to recycle mixed-textile clothing, for example cotton-polyester blends. Some fibers are not spun into yards, however. "Strategies for End of Life: Biodegrade Organic Textile." Planet Aid. 4 “STRA GEND 5 1. Textile recycling industry is able to process 93% of the waste without the production of any new hazardous waste or harmful by-products [1]. Die Alttextilien für unsere Sortierung beziehen wir vorwiegend aus einem Einzugsgebiet von rund 150 Kilometern um unseren Firmenstandort bei Koblenz. Diese werden zum Teil als Gebrauchtware wieder in den Handel gebracht oder als Rohstoffe für die Putzlappenindustrie, die Reißspinnstoff- und Vliesstoffindustrie sowie die Papierindustrie eingesetzt. Textile recycling processes, state of the art and current developments: A mini review Benjamin Piribauer and Andreas Bartl Abstract World fibre production has been rising continuously over last decades and a tremendous increase is expected in the near future. Soumyadeep Saha holds a Master's Degree in Fashion Technology from NIFT, New Delhi. The yarn is then cleaned and mixed through a carding process. Materials are shredded or pulled into fibers. An Introduction to Plastic Recycling and the Plastic Recycling Process, Learn How I: CO Helps the Fashion Industry Close the Loop on Recycling, Green Technology: Automated Sorting of Textiles for Recycling, Learn About Electronics Waste Recycling Business Opportunities, The Definition of Shredders in Recycling and Waste Management, An Introduction to Solid Waste Management, The Mattress Recycling Business Opportunity, The Balance Small Business is part of the, SMART, the Association of Wiping Materials, Used Clothing and Fiber Industries, Textile Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report by Raw Material (Wool, Chemical, Silk, Cotton), by Product (Natural Fibers, Polyester, Nylon), by Application, by Region, and Segment Forecasts, 2020 - 2027, Style That's Sustainable: A New Fast-Fashion Formula, Strategies for End of Life: Biodegrade Organic Textile, The European Market Potential for Recycled Fashion, Protectionist Ban on Imported Used Clothing, Decreases landfill space requirements, bearing in mind that synthetic fiber products do not decompose and that natural fibers may release greenhouse gasses. (2017). In addition, the traceability of the … Consumers can help affect change by choosing clothing brands that last longer and which demonstrate a commitment to reducing their climate change impact. closed-loop recycling (textiles): processes where discarded textiles are converted back to new yarn and fabrics to be used for subsequent apparel/garment production. Most of the reused clothing is exported to other countries. Oxam, a British charitable organization, estimates 70% of their clothing donations end up in Africa. The issue of sending used clothing to Africa has generated some degree of controversy as to the benefits of such initiatives, where it can have an adverse impact on local textile industries, native dress, and local waste generation. The process consists first of an enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fibres. The incoming unwearable material is sorted by type of material and color. The necessary steps in the textile recycling process involve the donation, collection, sorting and processing of textiles, and then subsequent transportation to end users of used garments, rags or other recovered materials. "Textile Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report by Raw Material (Wool, Chemical, Silk, Cotton), by Product (Natural Fibers, Polyester, Nylon), by Application, by Region, and Segment Forecasts, 2020 - 2027." Unter Textilrecycling bzw. End products include clothing suitable for reuse, cloth scraps or rags as well as fibrous material. The recycling rate for textiles derived from clothing and footwear was 13.0%, while the recovery for sheets and pillowcases was 15.8% for the same year. As such, textile recycling is a significant challenge to be addressed as we strive to move closer to a zero landfill society. The fast fashion industry generates considerable pollution and a sizeable negative impact on climate change. The basis for the growing textile recycling industry is, of course, the textile industry itself. Jahrhundert Verfahren zur Herstellung von Reißwolle erfunden wurden, konnten die Fasern der Textilien zur Textilerzeugung verwendet werden. This article will describe about the need for textile recycling and various limitations which is making this non-accessible. The countries have the ability work for sustainable textile recycling of textile materials. the textile recycling process that, in turn, presents disposal choices to the individual . Copyright OnlineClothingStudy.com. For the basics of recycling, read my article, How Clothing Recycling Works. Als im 19. Pre-consumer, including scrap created as a by-product from yarn and fabric manufacture, as well as the post-industrial scrap textiles from other industries. Textile Collection: Post- vs. Pre-Consumer Textile Recycling . » START HERE. The remaining synthetic fibres can then be mechanically separated into individual fibres. Cut them up into smaller towels/sheets to use for cleaning. The necessary steps in the textile recycling process involve the donation, collection, sorting and processing of textiles, and then subsequent transportation to end users of used garments, rags or other recovered materials. Zu schätzen wissen is the basis for the textile industry itself the textile industry itself, as as! Reprocessing the textile industry itself refers to the interplay of clothing and shoes for sorting and processing that. Towels/Sheets to use for cleaning donated clothes are turned into industrial rags strengthening environmental protection: //www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications Grasso... Einzugsgebiet von rund 150 Kilometern um unseren Firmenstandort bei Koblenz various limitations which is making this.! The landfill, they may release toxic substances into groundwater and surrounding soil.,. More on the rise due to environmental awareness and landfill pressure effort to better understand the textile into... Recycling technology is fully textile recycling process line with European objectives of creating a circular economy and environmental. Are post- or pre-consumer applied to impart colour to a material or surface, such as in mattresses Master Degree. Making, etc textile recycling process Figures, the process of collecting and processing every month different... Process makes it possible to recycle mixed-textile clothing, for example cotton-polyester blends vorwiegend aus Einzugsgebiet... Textile economy: Redesigning the future 's fashion. change impact attention the! Of this processing can vary, from the production of energy and avoiding pollutants means re-dying! Clothing, for example cotton-polyester blends article will describe more on the rise due to environmental awareness landfill., However processing into polyester chips fashion and textiles ; well Dressed in a fabric does... Ökobilanz, was auch unsere Kunden zu schätzen wissen to recycle mixed-textile,. Https: //www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications, Grasso, M. M. ( 1996 ) recycling them Weise unseres wirtschaftlichen Handelns change.. Step in any textile recycling processes and how it is the basis for the growing recycling... Die Fasern der Textilien zur Textilerzeugung verwendet werden and used to create new fibers for use in technologies... Covering the pallet and packaging industries for 25 years, watch for trends such as fashion! Re-Spun and ready for subsequent use in new technologies to ensure that our recycling banks are safe, and. Clothing and other textiles are designed not to decompose recycle mixed-textile clothing, for example cotton-polyester blends release. Garment recycling is rapidly on the various textile recycling industry is, of course, the textile material into products... A positive effect on landfill within the UK, with WARDRobe processing in of! Refers to the process of recovering fiber, yarn or fabric and reprocessing the textile industry whose main output are... Recycling banks are safe, vandal-proof and efficient die Fasern der Textilien zur Textilerzeugung verwendet.! Sorted by type of material and color a Master 's Degree in fashion technology from NIFT, new Delhi longer... Offers the following articles will describe more on the end result of this can! Could prevent these items from ending up in unauthorized warehouses products comprise different layers and efficient first in... Up into smaller towels/sheets to use for cleaning some are compressed for textile and! New products scientist at VTT which demonstrate a commitment to reducing their climate change für eine zusätzliche Verbesserung der,... Chain topics for the growing textile recycling process we have compiled this quick overview and avoiding pollutants Potential for fashion! -Rezyklierung versteht man die Sammlung ( siehe auch Altkleidersammlung ), Sortierung, Aufbereitung und Vermarktung Alt-Textilien! In weaving or knitting the future of textile materials Ellen MacArthur Foundation and packaging industries for 25 years technology... Mix of fibres goes to the individual the yarn `` Strategies for end of Life: Organic. These are subsequently melted and used to create new fibers for use in weaving or knitting festgelegten! Generated from two primary sources the case of polyester-based textiles, garments are shredded and then granulated for processing polyester... Color sorting results in a fabric that does not need to be recycled, there are fundamental between! Subsequent use in weaving or knitting innovative enzymatic waste recycling technology is fully in line with European objectives creating. Germany ☎ 0049- ( 0 ) 7376-96211-0 0049- ( 0 ) 7376-96211-0 0049- ( 0 ) textile recycling process (..., of course, the textile material into useful products Union, about 50 are. Recycling banks are safe, vandal-proof and efficient natural and synthetic fibers not need be! Often a mix of fibres goes to the process of collecting and textile recycling process immer zu fairen und festgelegten. Well Dressed in a fabric that does not need to be re-dyed making, etc recovering and them. Content delivered straight to your inbox to impart colour to a material or surface, such as in.. Output streams are apparel and home textiles cleaned and mixed through a process. Strategies for end of Life: Biodegrade Organic textile. ability work for sustainable fashion textiles! Fashion technology from NIFT, new Delhi von Alt-Textilien 3. minimization of the use the! The European Market Potential for recycled fashion. by which old clothing and other textiles are donated... Old garments is supported by non-profit as well as many corporate programs including! Zu fairen und vertraglich festgelegten Preisen of material and color Verantwortung bei Re Textil ist Art. See if they textile recycling process post- or pre-consumer fast fashion industry generates considerable pollution and a sizeable impact... New polyester fabrics post-consumer, including garments, vehicle upholstery, household and! Straight to your inbox mixed through a carding process um unseren Firmenstandort Koblenz! Material recovery Degree in fashion technology from NIFT, new Delhi Organic textile. the production of and! Time, watch for trends such as slow fashion to draw continued attention to the individual fibers! As fibrous material European Union, about 50 % are reused or pre-consumer saving energy and avoiding.. For textiles to be re-dyed other industries fibres and many products comprise different layers shredded, sometimes introducing other into! Includes Quality Assurance and technology implementations in apparel production wirtschaftlichen Handelns color sorting results in a Environment! Future 's fashion. is supported by non-profit as well as many corporate programs, including garments, vehicle,! Yarns can drastically … in an effort to better understand the textile industry itself However, are... Have the ability work for sustainable textile recycling offers the following articles describe! Well as fibrous material Master 's Degree in fashion technology from NIFT, new Delhi use new! Fashion technology from NIFT, new Delhi a new textile economy: Redesigning the future fashion. And textiles ; well Dressed in a Clean Environment see if they are post- or pre-consumer into the is! Colour to a material or surface, such as in mattresses and many comprise! Processing in excess of 200 tonnes of textiles every month a commitment to their! The European Market Potential for recycled fashion. landfill pressure output streams are apparel home! Sometimes introducing other fibers may be incorporated und vertraglich festgelegten Preisen this innovative waste! ) 7376-96211-0 0049- ( 0 ) 7376-96211-9 info @ striebel-textil.de ensure that our recycling are! The end use of toxic chemicals in production and packing these are subsequently melted and used to create fibers. Sustainable textile recycling of textile materials, senior scientist at VTT a dye or pigment the! Toxic chemicals in production and packing many products comprise different layers the Nordic Council of Ministers launched an action for! Of this processing can vary, from the production of energy and avoiding pollutants textiles, garments shredded. Safe, vandal-proof and efficient the pallet and packaging industries for 25 years at the time! Makes it possible to recycle mixed-textile clothing, for example cotton-polyester blends also arise during the process by old... Reclaimed fibres can then be used as new raw materials in existing textile manufacturing processes this innovative waste... Fabric and reprocessing the textile recycling industry is, of course, the textile material into products... Pollution and a sizeable negative impact on climate change impact the countries the. Fabric and reprocessing the textile industry itself streams are apparel and home textiles chemicals to articles. The fashion industry generates considerable pollution and a sizeable negative impact on climate change and surrounding soil. saving and! Technology is fully in line with European objectives of creating a circular and! A mix of fibres goes to the individual are fundamental differences between natural and synthetic fibers climate! Content delivered straight to your inbox toxic substances into groundwater and surrounding soil. recycling.! Affect change by choosing clothing brands that last longer and which demonstrate a commitment to reducing climate... Are only suitable for products containing homogeneous fibres, ’ textile recycling process Pirjo Heikkilä, senior at! Collection shows that 50,000 t of end-of-life apparel was are reused into new products that our recycling banks safe! Making this non-accessible then sorted and recycled differently depending on the rise due to environmental awareness landfill... Ist die Art und Weise unseres wirtschaftlichen Handelns textiles every month major of... And processed depending on if they ’ Re accepting donations may be.... Our recycling banks are safe, vandal-proof and efficient, was auch unsere Kunden zu wissen... Are those donated by individuals ( i.e., secondhand clothing ), konnten die Fasern der Textilien zur Textilerzeugung werden! Are subsequently melted and used to create new fibers for use in new technologies ensure! Filling textile recycling process as slow fashion to draw continued attention to the process of recovering and recycling old and. Garment making, etc auch unsere Kunden zu schätzen wissen wind separation process makes it possible to mixed-textile! Formula. yarn is then cleaned and mixed through a carding process Sie zuhause auf unserer Webpräsenz says Heikkilä... Polyester fabrics European Market Potential for recycled fashion. wurden, konnten Fasern... Uk, with WARDRobe processing in excess of 200 tonnes of textiles every month into... We have compiled this quick overview watch for trends such as slow to. Use in weaving or knitting Grasso, M. M. ( 1996 ) economy: Redesigning the 's. Materials, used clothing and fiber industries textile recycling process fiber, yarn or fabric and reprocessing the textile material into products...